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Chapter 1.

 

Introduction

 

In today's modern society, we live in our everyday objects, experiences, desires, feelings, and way of life in such a way as to improve our quality of life 'design' place. However, looking at us, as a designer, contributed to the process, then we really improve and enhance our lives? In the world of visual communication, communication designers face many challenges to create a piece of art work is increasing. Recently, challenges include issues and practices around social responsibility. As Roberts (2006), "Graphic design is a moral traffic." We have seen declarations and publications to raise awareness, "good design" or "good design" of consciousness. On the other hand, the coupling moral and graphic design is also a bit ridiculous, as Roberts (2006). Design after all, just a job. If you do not indulge in self-importance or exaggerated claims, it is crucial to remember that graphic design is a social activity. By its very nature, it affects a lot of people, and with this comes responsibility.

 

Keedy (2001) noted that the debate on the social responsibility of designers tend to be inadequate as a practice complicity between polarization and social actualization.1 design is not much of a conscience, even if the individual designers do. Design organization has rules or ethics, but in reality no law, regulation or sanction to be applied, if the rules are broken. He added that, in most cases, graphic design pseudoprofession not require a license, because a satisfactory market regulation. Designers can draw up a code of ethics that proclamation, signed the Declaration, and provide ideas and solutions to any number of problems. Finally, someone to buy what they create, are not going anywhere either. Designers have more power to influence than they could have imagined. Graphic design shape people's ideas, actions and desires. So how should we respond designers design the idea of social responsibility? Since Cranmer & Zappaterra (2003) puts it, "part of the solution if you are not a solution, you're part of the problem!"

 

Communication Design is a mixed discipline design and information between the development, we are concerned with how to break the media, such as printing, production, electronic media, or presentations to communicate with people. Design method of communication is not only concerned with the aesthetics of the medium reservation message development, but also with the establishment of new media channels to ensure that the information reaches the target audience. Some designers use graphic design and communication design, because alternating overlapping skills.

 

Communication Design can also refer to a system-based approach, the overall design of the media and information in which cultural or within an organization into a single integrated process, rather than a series of discrete effort. This is done through communication channels, it aims to promote and attract your focus is on your skills to people's attention to. Design Tips must be suitable for people of different cultures, while maintaining a pleasant visual design. These are important information can be added to a media communications package to get the best results.

 

Communication is designed to attract, motivate, and inspire people to create a desire to deal with the news, in order to make a favorable impact on the body commissioning the bottom line, it can be to build a brand, sales of mobile, or humanitarian purposes. The process involved in strategic business thinking, the use of market research, creativity and problem-solving skills. Communication through various media designers translate ideas and information. Their special talent lies not only in the traditional manual skills, but also in the design and marketing, in order to establish credibility through the ability to communicate in their strategic thinking.

 

The term is often used interchangeably communication design visual communication, but there is an alternative broader meaning, including hearing, vocal music, touch and smell. Communication design include information architecture, editing, layout, illustration, web design, animation, advertising, environmental media, visual identity design, performing arts, copywriting and creative industries application of professional writing skills.

 

In recent years, designers have to show social responsibility awareness has increased. Designers are increasingly aware of their peoples and the world we live in influence. While the designers tried to incorporate social responsibility into their work as much as possible, there is always a dilemma how to embrace ethical design practice. Issues such as when and where it should take place in socially responsible design, what is the attendant ethical choices, begging to be defined. Equally important question is how do the designers intend to use their power to influence the different users and audiences, and how to be reflected and implemented social responsibility?

 

This paper analyzes from a theoretical point of view, and through the eyes of designers plane communication design social responsibility and ethical practices, and ethical issues emerging in recent years the movement of the surrounding design. While this article can not give a clear answer to all problems, but is expected to further discussion and debate will follow to discuss social responsibility and ethics in visual communication design, from both the perspective of the designer, who bought the designer.

 

Analysis and research focus of this paper is the concept of social responsibility in Visual Communication Design (Graphic Design) design. The term "graphic design" will be used in some parts of this article, although the term is now gradually changed to visual communication design. The two terms have the same meaning in this article.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Chapter 2. 

 

2.0 Design social responsibility: ethical discourse in visual communication design 

 

Designer is a special breed of thinkers. We participate in the discussion and help identify solutions to the social problems facing the program. And community-based organizations through cooperative activists, researchers, scientists, institutions, politicians and artists, designers become collaborative processes needed to inspire and create change an integral part.

 

2.1. Design and Designers’ Role in Social Responsibility

 

Graphic design has become a unique approach, because the result of the industrial revolution, when the production is no longer a local matter. According to Roberts (2006), by the 1960s, graphic design has become a subject of serious study art schools, the specialized agencies in support of many countries. Brand is recognized worldwide, a much greater awareness of the importance of using symbols and advertising icon, demonstrating design.

 

In the company's business development and large-scale government has made ethics a more important issue, namely, almost every decision a designer we have a moral dimension, it requires all of us in our own small way, as head of a "balanced power. " (Roberts, 2006: 28--29)

 

Among the early design and design practice criticism from Victor Papanek as a true World2. The book quickly became the Bible of the movement responsible for the design. Papanek's motivation to write the book, he felt his power and influence of the design and the lack of moral responsibility felt the presence of a mismatch between the design industry. There is no reason for the wealthy countries trivial unique design and fashion consumer items, while most humans are living below the subsistence level. (Whiteley, 1993: 98) 2 is designed for the Real World, originally published in Swedish in Sweden in 1970 and in English in 1971.

 

Whiteley (1998) further pointed out that design should be one of the professional "to make the world a better place everything" frontier. Designers claim the status of "professionals", but, unlike the doctor's ethical guidelines are clear, export-oriented, designers often choose a commercial return, and in their "professional" according to the kind of celebrity stars, making them much closer artists and sales staff than doctors or teachers. Like everyone in professional activities, designers have a responsibility not only to their clients or employers but also to their fellow practitioners and society as a whole.

 

2.2. Ethics in Visual Communication Design

 

 2.2.1. Ethical Discourse and Overview

 

Roberts (2006) pointed out that morality is in the field of visual communications in a relatively unexplored. Unlike many other professions, visual communication is not necessarily presented to us a significant moral dilemma. However, since visual communication is part of the social structure, even seemingly small design decisions can affect other people, and reveals some of the broader approach on the designer's life.

 

Designers aware of this responsibility, and they do consider their professional ethics; but many people feel confused relationship, between the professional and personal ethics. Roberts (2006) mentioned that in a hard to reach a set of ethical rules is probably too reductive and judgment, but there is the formation of what is graphic designer actually implies a moral consensus.

 

Cranmer and Zappaterra (2003), on the other hand, what is the issue raised most ethical responsible for the design. From Bush's third reading, she vowed to upset what is professional design framed feeling of social responsibility concepts. Frequent generosity (ie probono design not-for-profit organization), or green (ie soybased use of recycled paper and ink), the design industry, in many cases, limiting the social responsibility, the definition of charity or good will.

 

Cranmer and Zappaterra (2003) further noted that graphic design is a competitive, brutal industry. Does anyone have moral, as a designer, may not be a designer, who is one hundred percent ethical manner. But there are different ways to socially responsible approach, which involves you work with who you Anne 3 Bush, in addition to public events, graphic design of social work, published in the Citizen Designer: Liability design, editing perspective. Steven Heller and 韦罗妮克维 Buena (2003) produced, how you work. In discussing ethical designers always been nailed whether customers can expect profits to our moral desire to do any harm to reconcile issues. Or, as Glaser (2005) put it in another way, we can serve the customers and the public at the same time?

 

 2.2.2. Ethics in Design: Personal and Professional Ethics

 

In discussing the ethical visual communication world, a large part of the decision comes down to each individual decision, that personal morality. Roberts (2006) pointed out that it is difficult or determine or judge someone by their role. The first thing to remember is that we can not be responsible for everyone and everything, all the time. It is also because we comply with ethical requirements to allow others free, within the limits of the consensus arrived at by some.

 

Therefore, a graphic designer decision in this regard is generally determined by the individual's conscience. That does not mean it is impossible, in some terms to reach consensus, but first we all need to decide where to draw the line. To do so, we will define a professional spirit. In addition, Roberts (2006), referring to the concept of choice, and therefore an important part of ethical considerations. If there is no freedom of choice, you must not take any responsibility for their actions. Since all decisions have a moral dimension, our choice reflects our core values. So, every choice can be significant and meaningful.

 

German designer Eric Speikermann noted that moral theory and practice do not always agree: "Faced with the dismissal of ten or undertake work of an evil empire decided that I will not dismiss ten people." Therefore, the basis of your real estate decisions on the principles, or to assess the outcome of action on the basis of its own "correctness"? Susan Szenasy added, "This is a personal moral decisions are you - each of us - who have the right to decide to do the right thing"

 

2.3. Ethical Paradigm

 

Speaking at the discussion between ethics and design, there is a very close relationship, causality, designers and diverse audience, namely those who purchase, use, or by design. Some are discussed below.

 

 2.3.1. Consumer

 

David Berman in his book that make the design. How designers can change the world, that the greatest threat to the future of humanity may just spending more than necessary. Designers clearly have introduced different marketing media creation persuasive visual communication role by companies, enterprises and big brands. Berman (2008) further explained that "instead of sharing our style, consumption and chemical addiction cycle, designers can use their expertise, skills and wisdom to help persuade the idea of the distribution of the world really needed."

 

 2.3.2. Client

 

Our client as the interface between the consumer and an invisible, but their interests are not always the same consumers. If the client and designers can not effectively communicate their needs, and there is no mutual respect, and the resulting design is likely to be less successful. Roberts (2006) pointed out that unethical is a moral issue. This means that we accept the commission agreed to do the work to the best of our ability, time and within budget range. In exchange, we have agreed, rather than being paid to impede our work. Designers need to understand that, from the point of view of their customers, the design is a small, but not very valuable contribution to the world.

 

In graphic design, there is debate around this theme. Most designers fear, in order to achieve universal access they will have to adhere to strict guidelines creativity. Client, at the same time, the urgency of the financial implications. (Roberts, 2006: 86)

 

 2.3.3. Society

 

Designed to direct expression of the cultural, social, political and economic complexion of a society, and thus provides a snapshot of social conditions. Whiteley (1993) pointed out that the design changes to occur designer must analyze the role and inspection of the social value and design.

 

Paul Nini (2004) wrote an interesting article about the ethical issues of graphic design. He said that there is definitely nothing wrong with protecting our interests and professional clients. However, he believes, to a society, the most significant contribution will be to ensure that we create the communication is actually useful to those who they are intended, and it must focus on promotion to major, the same level as those discussed in the previous

 

 2.3.4. Environment

 

Designers and artists at the forefront of the trend, and there is a glimpse of tomorrow's news today. There was a time when environmental responsibility is a niche few select clients. That time is gone. The environment is everyone's responsibility.

 

Abusow (2008) pointed out that in the design community is part of too7 of. Environmental option than paper, because hundreds of paper companies and printers through who Sustainable Forestry Initiative (SFI) certification8 play a responsible and active role of forestry in the past much. In addition, she noted, a designer working with two of the most minute details and abstract universe widespread concern, and how they interact and what looks good. In short, the designers naturally ecological concerns. But to make things functional and "fit their environment" is no longer enough; the designers have used their design is how the environment affects their attention. This is an ecological view beyond the cycle.

 

 2.3.5. Culture

 

Culture is the essence of community. It is how they will be designed to embrace or the influence of culture is very important for the designer. Bush (2003) that is designed and culture, because society can not act outside the cultural background to understand. This understanding to build our social world: the cultural creation of the world, that makes sense. "For that we need to give it a certain sense of social practice, there is a concept that can meaningfully think about it," Bush said. In addition, she pointed out that some sociological explanation of the social significance of the product, therefore, a necessary precondition of the operation of all social practice, and social practice account cultural conditions must be formed of how they work.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Chapter 3.

 

3.1. Discussion on Social Responsibility and Ethical Design

 

 3.1.1. Understanding Ethics and Designers’ Social Responsibility

 

Measuring success

An interview with the beginning of a question: How do you measure success? As expected, the designer has their own interpretation of success, but they believe that an important part of customer satisfaction as success criteria. Henry Steiner believes that three factors will define success: financial success, clients, and the designer's own satisfaction with the completion of the project, at the designer's good reputation in the industry, and resulting from work on.

 

David Berman, on the other hand, that the importance of the part of the design practices and communicate with customers as a strategic success centric approach of the beginning of each project is. He believes that the success of business customers do not just measure the financial aspect, but also from the big design impact on the organization and the world. Mark Randall agreed Berman noted that the achievement of designers and customers want to influence the creation of a more critical, such as effective communication and customer information. To Hermawan Tanzil, success by doing the best you can and educational plane on the client's design to measure the importance of its business.

 

Ethics and social responsibility

In the discussion of social responsibility and ethics, as described in Chapter 2, there is no clear rules and regulations, as well as the proposition that a designer should be able to answer how to act and ethical conduct, and acceptance of these principles into their own practices. David Berman identified two types of ethics - personal and professional - and a designer must be considered. He noted that there is a design organizations or professional associations, reflecting the common behavioral code of ethical conduct to set a minimum level. But to a large extent, ethical practice is a personal and professional choice.

 

Mark Randall, on the other hand, discusses the ethical and moral point of view. He said that ethical behavior means not to take advantage of a person or the environment. Hanny Kardinata agree and believe in honesty Mark Randall to themselves and their work.

 

Henry Steiner has a moral and social responsibility for a different approach. He said there was no connection with the relationship between ethics and graphic design. The most important thing is capable, as a graphic designer. Design is a professional, no one has ever died from a bad graphic design, he said, adding that talks on ethics and social responsibility is actually a lack of designer masks. In short, there is no sense of morality graphic design background; the most important is the ability to establish and clearly communicated to the audience.

 

Graphic design (ER) in the role of social responsibility

 

Interviewed most designers think the designer should be accountable to the customers and the community. Hanny Kardinata said, as a graphic designer from the social dynamic around us inseparable, and designers need to understand the impact of their design on the environment. David Berman said that we must take on the responsibility of society as we can.

 

Henry Steiner is the only one with a different point of view, that the graphic design itself does not have any moral implications. He is an example of Nazi symbols words, that it is the most successful in the 20th century created the most important corporate image. While the entire world to condemn what Adolf Hitler and the Nazis did, this does not mean that the swastika is a bad design.

 

3.1.2. Practicing an Ethical and Socially Responsible Design

 

Balanced design practices and social responsibility

Theory is different from practice. When asked about the balance of commercial design practice of social responsibility, the designers came up with a different view on this issue.

 

Mark Randall mentioned balancing act is really the designer's choice. In his case, he chose to work in non-profit organizations, and certain cities in Worldstudio. Besides this, he also participated in the Worldstudio Foundation (a nonprofit foundation complement Worldstudio) the main objective to contribute to the community. Obviously, social responsibility is Mark Randall significant part of professional work. More, this is discussed in Chapter 4.

 

For David Berman, he focused on the type of client, choose the world or those who actively promote moral neutrality wise, but allowing him the opportunity to learn new skills and strengthen his ability, as a designer, which in turn It can be used to influence and do good.

 

Hanny Kardinata contribution taken a slightly different approach to his design and social responsibility. He devoted his time and energy searching through the history of graphic design Indonesia DGI website dedicated to Indonesian graphic designer specialized and society in general. As a business successful designer in Indonesia, Hermawan Tanzil managed to balance his professional design practice, contribute to the community. It is from his studio production design, which highlights the identity, value and unique feature is the core of his work is obvious.

 

Design and graphic design in the world can not be separated from its social context, because it is the information and messages to the audience.

 

"We must create an awful lot of grief, destruction and humiliation of power. We have to manipulate people's behavior on society, so we must use the opportunity and skills to help create a world selection tool for a more sustainable development," the big David Berman said. He added, "The first step is to recognize how much we have power, then we can decide how we choose to use it." To 准伯曼, Mark Randall believes that design has the potential to significantly influence the world . Hanny Kardinata that "design should be able to do something;? If not, why should we bother to learn it."

 

Design practices and the requirements of contemporary society movement

 

"That's how it works to solve a problem than is Beautiful is more important often in the form of interest in the design world is not functional."

David - Sterling and Mark Randall -

 

In reality, the business mix of business and social work is not as easy as it looks. Those who had the opportunity to find commercial business practice and practice good balance between social responsibility. Unfortunately, McCoy (2003) as noted, there are good reasons often seem the least resources in the current economic system10.

 

However, just because it is difficult does not mean it is impossible. In the past few years, we have seen a plane designed by designers try to improve the world. Some examples from the non-profit and commercial design studio shooting, chapter highlighted.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Chapter 4.

 

 

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